2017 Summer Institute for Teachers


Historic and Geographic perspectives: Slavery in Virginia 1607 – 1758

July 26 – 29, 2017

Stratford Hall, Virginia

Sponsored by the Virginia Geographic Alliance

in partnership with the University of Richmond, School of Professional and Continuing Studies

This year’s Institute is already filled–please visit our page next year for information on the 2018 Teacher Institute.

Historic and geographic perspectives

From July 26 – 29, 2017, twenty-five teachers from Virginia and the nation will have an opportunity to participate in a unique and practical educational experience.

Historic and Geographic Perspectives: Slavery in Virginia 1607 – 1758 is not just a set of lectures on the history of slavery in Tidewater Virginia, or an examination of geographic vocabularies applicable to the Virginia Tidewater. The six lectures offered by outstanding scholars will illuminate components of an immensely complex narrative, American slavery to the mid-18th century.

Set on the grounds of Stratford Hall in Westmoreland County, Virginia, home of two signers of the Declaration of Independence, this four-day residential institute is open to current state licensed teachers of United States history, geography, government, environmental science, and human geography, at the middle and high school, college, and pre-service levels.

Upon acceptance, each participant will receive a Stratford Hall Teachers Institute fellowship, which means that the Institute will be expense-free, with the exception of travel to Stratford Hall and three evening meals. Lodging is provided onsite. At the end of the Institute, each participant will receive a certificate recommending 30 re-certification points. Teachers may also enroll for three graduate credits through the University of Richmond. Details for graduate credit follow.

Registration & information

To apply: Download and print the registration form and application. Compose a 250-450 word essay on “The Impact of Slavery on American Culture.” Application deadline is July 14, 2017.  E-mail the application to Jon Bachman, Public Events Manager, jbachman@stratfordhall.org, or mail application to 483 Great House Road, Stratford, VA 22558.

Cost: Participants are responsible for the costs of transportation to and from Stratford and three evening meals. All other Institute costs (full tuition, housing and most meals) are covered by fellowship funding sources.

Requirements for participants: All participants are required to complete three lesson plans designed to complement the source materials and content of lectures used during the Institute.

CEU Certification provided: Each teacher, following completion of the three required lesson plans and attendance at lectures, will be awarded a certificate of Continuing Education Units for 30 hours within three weeks of the conclusion of the Institute.



The University of Richmond, School of Professional and Continuing Studies, offers an option for teachers attending the Institute. Educators may earn three semester hours of graduate credit while attending the Stratford Hall Teachers Institute. This option will provide a unique opportunity for teachers to further expand their professional pedagogical experience. To show our appreciation for the work accomplished by school personnel, educators are eligible for our Teacher Professional Development graduate tuition rate of $800. Make payments to the Bursar’s Office following the schedule posted on the Student Accounts page (controller.richmond.edu/tuition or contact the Bursar’s Office at 804-289-8147). Complete the UR Summer School Application/ Registration form and submit with tuition payment: http://spcs.richmond.edu/summer/educators/stratford-hall.html

Lecture Topics

Geography of the Atlantic Ocean

slave-shipDr. Michael Allen

To fully comprehend the trans-Atlantic slave trade, a comprehensive review of the geography of the Atlantic is necessary. The spatial characteristics are intertwined with temporal dimensions of the Middle Passage, and many of these attributes still exist today, such as the role of global circulation on shipping routes. Temperature and precipitation patterns still play a role in agricultural development. Ecologically, the proliferation of sugar and tobacco plantations helped heighten the demand for slaves. These environments were also favorable for particular diseases. Disease etiology helps explain the transportation of specific diseases into the Tidewater region and their future impacts.

Slavery and Resistance in the Early Atlantic World: Sowing the Seeds of Revolution in the African Diaspora

Dr. Kelley Deetz

This keynote address highlights several historical moments and people that represent anti-slavery sentiment and Black revolutionary thought throughout the early colonies. Enslaved West Africans began resisting the moment they were captured, and this same cognitive dissonance led to the ultimate freedom of African people throughout the Atlantic world. Who were these early revolutionaries? How did they rebel? What evidence do we have of their attempts to overthrow the oppressive system of chattel slavery? How can archaeology help render a better understanding of these men, women, and children? Dr. Deetz will draw from archaeological data and historical records to illustrate this tradition of resistance, and contextualize it within the larger scope of revolutionary thought.


From “A Society with Slaves” to a “Slave Society”: Virginia, 1650-1750

african-slave-trafficDr. Kevin Hardwick

English settlements in North America existed on the periphery of an already well established trans-Atlantic slave trade. English merchants, seamen, military officers, and others involved in early colonization were familiar with slavery. But slavery was hardly integral to the success of the Virginia colony for much of the 17th century. By the 1650s, Virginia was a society in which some people lived as slaves, but it was hardly a society in which slavery was the central institution defining economic relations within the colony. By the 1750s, however, the situation was markedly different. This lecture explores the transition in the Virginia colony from a society with slaves to a slave society in which chattel slavery was central, not only to the colonial economy, but also to the colony’s society and culture.

Native American Slavery in Virginia and Beyond

Dr. James Rice

Slavery was widespread in the pre-modern world, and it took many forms. The predominant image in modern America, of enslaved Africans and their descendants working on cotton (or perhaps tobacco, sugar, or rice) plantations, was but one variety of slavery. Nor was it the only form of slavery even in North America, for the enslavement of Native Americans, both by other native people and by European colonists, was as widespread and as common as that of Africans. This is a big story, covering all of the Americas, but it’s also a local story: in colonial Virginia, Indian slavery was common, important in its own right and also connected to the rise of racial slavery in the English colonies. This lecture will focus on Indian slavery in Virginia, on how it connected Virginia to other parts of America, and on its legacy for race in America.


Enslaved Africans Brought to Colonial Virginia: A Geographic Perspective

Payne Memorial Cabin c.1940

Payne Memorial Cabin c.1940

Dr. Edward Kinman

By 1700, the Chesapeake Tidewater was no longer a region populated by cultural groups that developed their ways of life in North America. Cultural patterns were also affected by African and British influences as well as the intermixture of Native American, European, and African traditions. Employing cultural ecology, this session will develop a broad geographic context to understand enslaved Africans brought to Virginia.


Early Colonial Intersectional Perspectives on Slavery in Virginia

Dr. Lauranett Lee

This presentation explores the ways in which diasporic Africans adapted their social and cultural traditions and values on unfamiliar soil. From their arrival onward, they resisted the complete denial of their humanity, fashioning a new identity in a new land despite the changing and often hostile interchange with Europeans. The lecture will look beyond Africa as a continent and identify distinctions among the people. Their adaptations provide a refreshing way to consider what Africa means to America today, why it matters, and how new research can be used in the classroom to investigate and appreciate our human ties. As an overarching objective, this presentation seeks to encourage a greater appreciation for, and application of, the humanities as a fruitful field of inquiry and inspiration.




Dr. Michael Allen

Dr. Allen is an Assistant Professor of Geography at Old Dominion University, located in Norfolk, Virginia. Through his teaching and research interests into the societal impacts of weather and climate, Dr. Allen fosters critical thinking about the causes and consequences of environmental issues such as climate change.









Dr. Kelley Deetz

Dr. Deetz earned her Ph.D. from U.C. Berkeley, and currently teaches at Randolph College, in Lynchburg, Virginia. She has partnered with National Geographic to work on projects related to the history and legacy of Nat Turner.










Dr. Kevin Hardwick

Dr. Hardwick specializes in the history of early America, Virginia, and the history of Anglo-American Constitutionalism. He has served on the faculty at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia since 1998 and on the faculty of the James Madison Memorial Foundation since 2005.









Dr. Edward Kinman


Dr. Kinman is Professor of Geography and Assistant Dean for Assessment and Program Improvement for the Cook-Cole College of Arts and Sciences at Longwood University, located in Farmville, Virginia. He serves as the Coordinator for the Virginia Geographic Alliance, a group of educators supporting geographic literacy formed by the National Geographic Society and the Commonwealth of Virginia in 1986.









Dr. Laurenett Lee

Dr. Lauranett Lee

Dr. Lee teaches at the University of Richmond and is a 2017 Community Trustbuilding Fellow with Initiatives of Change/Hope in the Cities. Dr. Lee consults on public history projects and serves on several boards.









Dr. James Rice

Dr. James Rice

Dr. Rice, a faculty member at Tufts University in Medford, Massachusetts, is currently writing a book entitled Founding Massacres: Violence, Ambition, and the Birth of Virginia.







Institute Schedule

(all program activities are held in the Council House unless otherwise specified)

Wednesday, July 26

2:00 PM – 5:00  PM   Participants check in  at the Stratford Hall Lodging Office

5:00 PM  Introduction to program & faculty, review of Institute requirements & CEUs

5:30 PM   Keynote address by Dr. Kelley Deetz: Slavery and Resistance in the Early Atlantic World

6:30 PM   Social for Institute faculty and participants

Thursday, July 27

7:30 AM – 8:30 AM   Breakfast – Stratford Hall Dining Room

9:00 AM – 10:30 AM   Geography of the Atlantic Ocean – Dr. Michael Allen

10:30 AM – 11:00 AM   Break & informal discussion

11:00 AM – 12:30 PM   Early Colonial Intersectional Perspectives on Slavery in Virginia – Dr. Lauranett Lee

12:30 PM – 1:30 PM   Buffet lunch – Stratford Hall Dining Room

2:00 PM – 4:00 PM   Tours/informal presentations of historic Great House and grounds by Stratford Hall staff

5:00 PM – 7:00 PM   Dinner (on your own)

7:00 PM – 9:00 PM   Wine & Cheese Social in Council House

Friday, July 28

7:30 AM – 8:30 AM   Breakfast – Stratford Hall Dining Room

9:00 AM – 10:30 AM   Enslaved Africans Brought to Colonial Virginia: A Geographic Perspective – Dr. Edward Kinman

10:30 AM – 11:00 AM   Break &  informal discussion

11:00 AM – 12:30 PM   Tobacco Cultivation at Stratford Hall & visit to Stratford gristmill

12:30 PM – 1:30 PM   Buffet lunch – Stratford Hall Dining Room

2:00 PM – 3:30 PM   Native American Slavery in Virginia and Beyond – Dr. James Rice

3:30 PM – 4:30 PM   Break & informal discussion

4:30 PM – 5:00 PM   Review of Institute requirements & informal faculty discussion

5:00 PM – 7:00 PM   Dinner (on your own)

7:00 PM – 9:00 PM  Wine & Cheese Social in Council House

Saturday, July 29

7:30 AM – 8:30 AM   Breakfast – Stratford Hall Dining Room

9:00 AM – 10:30 AM   From “A Society with Slaves” to a “Slave Society”: Virginia 1650-1750 – Dr. Kevin Hardwick

10:30 AM – 11:00 AM   Break & informal discussion

11:00 AM – 12:00 PM   Faculty roundtable

12:30 PM – 1:30 PM   Buffet lunch – Stratford Hall Dining Room

1:30 PM – 2:00 PM   Review of lesson plan requirements, distribution of CEUs, closing remarks,  lodging check-out